Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer ( CCI) is still one of the leading causes of cancer in the western world , exceeded only by lung cancer mortality rates. An estimated 135,400 new cases of colon cancer will be diagnosed in 2001 , and that 56,700 people will die of the disease during the same period . Despite advances in early detection, monitoring and treatment , these mortality numbers remained relatively stable. There are differences in the emerging racial mortality rates , with African Americans have the highest mortality rate ( 50.7 per 100,000 ) compared to Caucasians ( 43.6 per 100,000 people) . American Indians have the lowest rate ( 16.3 per 100,000 people) . Colorectal cancer affects men and women equally.

Advancing age remains the single largest risk factor favoring the development of ( CCI) . Therefore , the cost of managing colorectal cancer is likely to increase due to the aging population . Today Americans have a 5% chance of developing this cancer in their lifetime . Risk factors for developing UI : inflammatory bowel disease , colorectal adenomas , a family history of the UI , and a diet high in fat and low in fiber. Although the etiology of the UI is not fully understood , environmental , genetic and nutritional factors believed to be responsible for 85 % to 90 % of all cases.


What is the surgical treatment?

 The surgical removal of the tumor is the most basic treatment of cancer in the colon. During operation a part of the intestine including  also mesenteric lymph nodes are removed (> 15 nodes in number), which usually tumor cells spread and cause metastasis .

If for some reason the bowel can’t be anastomosed, the doctor will bring and implement the intestine to the skin level . This type of surgical procedure is called a colostomy. From the point of ostomy exits gut contents ( faeces ) which will be collected in a special bag , the collector , and in accordance with its specifications, or will change , whether discharged. Usually the colostomy is temporary treatment and subsequently attempt to reanastomose and restore bowel in place with another surgery . In rare cases the colostomy for some reason to be permanent . When the volume to be removed is located at the upper part of the large intestine, where it joins to the small intestine , then the surgical removal process and suture of the small intestine in the abdominal skin called ileostomy . And in this case will be collected bowel contents into the collector. This surgery is generally temporary.

 For the purposes of surgery , you need to be admitted to hospital or surgical clinic one day prior to the relevant mainly bowel preparation with laxatives or special administration and antibiotics . When the tumor creates obstruction, then it becomes the bowel cleansing . In cases of advanced cancer , the doctor will do surgery to get a sample of the tumor cells for tumor biopsy .

What is a colostomy ?

 In some people with colon cancer is no indication to undergo a colostomy . Although in your case it is handling it takes time and patience to get used to the manner and procedures for proper care . The education of colostomy care , some hospitals / clinics, begins a few days before surgery . This training to patients or their relatives is of special nurses in the care of the colostomy . Round operatively , when you start the recovery , the nurses will begin to show you how to take care of yourself the colostomy . In principle , however, nurses will look after your colostomy and slowly will educate you how you could care the surrounding skin.

You can meet and chat with people who had the same experience with you if you want . These people know and can guide you and help you find a way to live with your colostomy . Also the staff or volunteers who staff the various services organizations / ligaments of patients with cancer, can offer valuable services and help if you refer near them.

 Before surgery the doctor will choose the point that will make the colostomy so be consistent with your actions and not prejudice the application of the collector in any position you are.

What causes colon cancer ?

 For the more numerous the causes of colon cancer is unknown . The information provided by the various investigations were still ongoing and that , linking colorectal cancer and dietary habits . Prevalent is the idea that a diet rich in animal fat and animal protein , and low in fiber ( legumes fruit - vegetables) may increase the risk of developing colon cancer .

The strong family history of a person where his parents or his brother or his sister had been diagnosed with colon cancer before the age of 45 years is considered as high risk to develop at some stage of his life colon cancer as also if other related persons are diagnosed with colorectal cancer .

Also individuals suffering from genetic diseases of the bowel or suffering from chronic colitis or intestinal polyps , are at high risk of transformation into cancer. Polyps of the colon is removed because good easily transform into cancer .

 What are the symptoms of colon cancer ?

 The symptoms may be only one any of the following :

 1. Blood in stools or black stools

2 . Change in bowel habits - diarrhea or persistent constipation

3 . weight Loss

4. Feeling of incomplete defecation

 Sometimes cancer can cause stop or bowel obstruction . Symptoms are vomiting, constipation , the perisfigmenos pain and distension ( inflating ) of the abdomen. These symptoms , however, may occur in other diseases so it will arise when it is very important to be diagnosed by your doctor .

How is it diagnosed ?

 Once your personal physician decides to refer you to a specialist , and then begins the process of diagnosis.

 The specialist doctor after your health history , will go to various diagnostic tests such as digital rectal examination of the bowel , blood and stool tests and chest radiograph. More specialized tests may be followed usually are: rectoscopy / sigmoidoscopy , a barium enema , colonoscopy , ultrasound , computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging .

How does the treatment work ?

 The main treatment for colon cancer is with surgery . In many cases, a combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy . The therapy should be administered will depend on the stage of the cancer diagnosis , ie the size, location and extension of the tumor, which are the main findings of surgery and cytology of the tumor.

 With sometimes the doctor may recommend precede surgery other types of treatment . We will declare the results of diagnostic tests set by the initial diagnosis of colon cancer .

 The various stages of colon cancer described by doctors with scientific evidence Dukes.

 The stages of colon cancer :

 Dukes A- volume only located in the inner wall of the colon.

 Dukes B- The tumor has penetrated the inner wall to the muscle without infringing the regional lymph nodes .

 Dukes C- the tumor has extended to one or more nodes in the area. Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system and are the natural defenses of the body against infections .

 Dukes D- Cancer tumor cells have spread to other organs of the body and have created secondary tumors ( metastases ) .

 Surgery: You might be the most appropriate treatment you need and whether the tumor stage is premature (early ) then there is a possibility recuperation . In cases where the tumor causes obstruction in the intestines , then surgery will be done to address and treat the symptoms .

 Chemotherapy is usually administered after surgery to reduce the likelihood of recurrence of the disease especially when the cancer is advanced . In some cases , may be given before surgery or in combination with radiotherapy .

 Radiation : Usually administered in anal cancer either pre -operatively or post-operatively .

 The 75-90 % of patients without infiltrated lymph nodes live at least 5 years, while 60 % of patients with lymph nodes infiltrated .