. From the blood , the more necessary is the liver function tests, hepatitis markers ( disclose whether the patient has or has gone in the past and is a carrier of hepatitis B or C) and tumor markers often indicative of the presence of liver cancer. From the latter, the most important is the determination of alpha- fetoprotein (AFP), which is significantly increased in 50-70 % of cases of primary liver cancer . It should be noted that this ratio may be relatively increased in other cancers such as cancer of the testes , pancreas , stomach , etc. From the imaging tests, the most useful for diagnosis is ultrasonography , computed tomography , magnetic resonance imaging , angiography and scintigraphy of the liver. Each of these may reveal abnormal areas in the liver that is indicative of the presence of tumor. Confirmation of the presence of cancer , but only by a liver biopsy may be done by taking a small portion of the tumor, either by surgery or by special needle ( without surgery ) or laparoscopy , when the tumor is located on the surface of the liver . This sample from the tumor is examined under the microscope for the presence of cancerous cells.
What are the treatment options ?
The treatment modality depends on the stage of the disease ( ie its size ) , the biological age ( but not the actual quality of health at that age ) , the liver condition (how well it works Child Puch classification) and the general condition of the patient . The doctor , who should be specific to a particular object may recommend surgical treatment , chemotherapy (systemic , ie injecting drug dispersed throughout the body or regional case , ie a specific drug delivery system of the hepatic artery injected directly only in the liver alone or in combination with embolization ) or radiation and biological therapy (which strengthens the body to fight the disease with the same forces - this is also called immunotherapy. Generally , liver cancer treated difficult unless the tumor is relatively small and localized to one lobe of the liver but , in most cases , the diagnosis of the disease is at an advanced stage when the cancer is inoperable . Surgical treatment , when indicated , is the single most effective treatment that can deliver and permanent cure . Liver transplantation when indicated is very effective in survival from Liver Cancer.
How to improve the prognosis in cancer of the liver ?
This can be achieved if patients at risk ( with hepatitis B or C, cirrhotic any etiology ) are checked at regular intervals in order to diagnose the disease at an early stage , since then can undergo surgery . But what will help improve public health and reduce the incidence of liver cancer is the systematic vaccination for the prevention of hepatitis B and even the prevention of hepatitis C and awareness of the consequences of alcoholism leads in alcoholic cirrhosis .
Median survival after surgery is 50 months and without surgery 10 months .
The primary malignant tumors of the liver are:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Also called hepatoma or HCC. It is the most common type of primary liver cancer .
This type of liver cancer develops from hepatocytes . It is more common in people who have suffered liver damage from cirrhosis . It is much more likely to develop in men than in women . It also becomes more common as people age.
The Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a rare subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ) . The term " fibro " refers to fibrous tissue and laminar -like petals refers to the cell structure .
The Fibrolamellar carcinoma tends to develop in younger people who do not have cirrhosis or infection with hepatitis B or C. The other main difference is that individuals with such carcinomas do not have high levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in their blood. As in HCC, surgery is the primary therapy . Surgical resection of fibrolamellar carcinoma exhibits improved survival compared with HCC.
Cholangiocarcinoma referred to bile . The liver produces bile, which helps the digestion of fats in food, and flows through tubes called bile ducts in the gallbladder . Cancer can start anywhere along the bile ducts . If cancer starts in the ducts inside the liver , called intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma . If the cancer starts in the ducts outside the liver is called the extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and treated as cancer of the bile duct. It is very aggressive carcinoma because usually discovered at an advanced stage and have low survival .
It may also be called hemangiosarcoma . This is an extremely rare form of cancer . In England , only about 10 cases diagnosed each year. This type of cancer starts in the blood vessels of the liver. Most commonly diagnosed in persons 70 to 80 years .
Hepatoblastoma is a very rare form of primary liver cancer that usually affects young children . Most often diagnosed in children under 3 . In England , there are fewer than 15 cases of hepatoblastoma diagnosed each year. Usual treatment is surgical intervention and chemotherapy .